Web address: www.krigshistorie.net/literature.html


Historical Material
- on War Related Matters

mainly regarding the Nordic countries


- A small selection of articles and books

(subjectively edited by Arno Mong Daastøl)



- with information that in some cases shatters what I was told to believe in...
These articles are intended to cast "new" light on "well known" historical events

- for the sake of truth and fairness.

"Circumstances cause us to act the way we do. We should always bear this in mind before judging the actions of others. I realized this from the start during World War II.
A personal example is the fact that I grew up in an environment where we knew little or nothing about what was going on in Russia [Soviet Union]. It was all a mystery and everyone who lived there was diabolical. This was not uncommon for many people in the interim between the wars. However on the day Hitler attacked the Soviet Union, the newspapers changed their tune. Compared to our common enemy, Nazism, the Russians were our great allies. Therefore, I feel convinced that any political picture can be changed to suit the needs of the powers that be."

Quoted in the biography "Thor Heyerdahl, The Explorer," by Snorre Evensberget. Oslo: J.M. Stenersens Forlag A.S., 1994, page 205-206.

Material in English

 Material in Scandinanvian

WW II in Norway


Material not in English will have s
hort descriptions in English
- in order to make some of the information available to an international audience.

Material in English


Why is Norway of any interest regarding WW I and II?

These factors also doomed Norway, especially vulnerable after her separation from the union with Sweden.

1) The Norwegian merchant fleet saved Britain in its most difficult time - e.g. by carrying 40 % of its oil until 1942. See below under NORTRASHIP.

2) The Norwegian heavy water at Rjukan, Telemark was a prime resource for Germany's development of a nuclear bomb, a bomb that actually was tested before the war's end.

3) But primarily because of Norway's strategic geographical position, making it indispensable :
a) in WW II for a German blockade on Russia in the far north, for instance harbouring the Tirpitz battleship in the northern fjords.
b) in WW I and WW II for a British blockade against Germany  -
regarding nuclear fuel, bases along the west coast and the outlet to the Atlantic, and more important with the Atlantic harbour of Narvik providing easy access to Swedish iron ore at Gällivare.
c) in WW I for British supporting bases against Germany - for forging through the Oeresund straits to the Baltic, in order to attack Berlin by a landing on the beaches of Pommeria (cf. the plans of Admiral Fisher, First Lord of the Sea)

Great Britain's chief strategist of maritime blockade against Germany, during WW I and WW II , Lord Hankey, wrote that,


"In the fortress of Europe no section of the whole perimeter was more important in 1939 than the coast of Norway, ... "
(Hankey, 1950, p.70)


As Hitler pointed out in a series of directives[1] directed to prevent English annexation of Norway,

"Der Führer is convinced that Norway is the decisive theatre of war of this war. He therefore demands complete loyalty to all orders concerning a defence of this territory.[2]
This is confirmed by the dimensions of the German occupational army in Norway, which counted up to 400 000 soldiers and equipment at the same time, while the population only counted 3 millions...

[1]Directives number 21, 33, 37. Quoted in Francois Kersaudy, Vi stoler på England, Cappelen, Oslo 1991, ch.4, pp.120-127, translated from the French original. Translated into English the title reads "We Trust England" or "We Rely on England".
Führer Conferences on naval affairs" in Brassey's naval Annual, London 1948, p.263


External literature on history and world politics

A true classic and a mind-buster of a book is Dr. Carroll Quigley's Tragedy and Hope .

(This incomplete copy is scanned by John Turmel. Here is a shorter version scanned by Peter Myers. Note that the text itself is a number of abridged excerpts and cannot be used for exact quotations. Nevertheless, these texts will give an impression of Quigley's ideas.)

For the events leading to WW II, see chapters 12 and 13.

It is, however, obvious from Quigley's text that he generally
stuck to the winning parties version of the war and e.g. praised their intelligence and courage etc. (e.g. p.695), and seriously played down the Allied war crimes, both in Europe and in Asia. Quigley is also wrong or on rather thin ice in a number of cases, e.g. in accepting the Hossbach protocol as a trustworthy document (e.g. p.618); in denying Stalin's plans for invading Europe (e.g. p.698); and on the interlude for the war events in Norway, such as the pretext for the Western Powers' Finish operation (p.681), and Quislings' collaboration with Hitler in the preparation for the occupation of Norway.


Dr. Carroll Quigley is best known as Bill Clinton's professor of history at the Foreign Service School of Georgetown University. He also taught at Princeton and at Harvard. His 1300 page book "Tragedy and Hope" is unique among other history books in its exposure of the role of International Banking cabal behind-the-scenes in world affairs.

sweetliberty has digitalised a number of odd books under the title "How Wars are Made. BEHIND THE SCENES ".
Many of these books are definitely not politically correct, but well worth a look. Note the German White Book from 1939, and MP. Captain A. H. M. Ramsay's book The Nameless War. Michael Walsh's book Witness to History consists a vast amount of truly astonishing quotes from acknowledged "authorities". His recent
book Round One to the Barbarians (2005) is similarly remarkable, in spite of some repetitions etc.


You may also find a number of interesting books at www.conspiracyarchive.com/Links/


WW II - War Guilt


Russell Grenfell: Unconditional Hatred. German War Guilt and the Future of Europe, (Word - PDF) New York: THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, 1953 (In German: Bedingungsloser Haß),

Amazon review


"The author of this hard-hitting book came from an old English naval family. He served in the Royal Navy for over thirty years, participating in most of the decisive actions of World War I and subsequently helping to direct the Royal Navy Staff College.

Captain Grenfell's books on naval strategy — Sea Power (1941), The Bismarck Episode (1948), Nelson the Sailor (1949), and Main Fleet to Singapore (1951) — are known throughout the English-speaking world for their brilliance and their clarity. They were given top priority by reviewers here and abroad.

This final book — Captain Grenfell died suddenly of unknown causes in 1954 as he was drafting a sequel to it — is a 21-gun broadside on policy rather than strategy; it touches on so many raw nerves, conflicts with so many prejudices and vested interests, that publication has had to take place in our still largely free and uncensored United States. No English publisher will touch it as of the present — nor has any important American reviewer recognized its existence.

Those who are still fighting World War II will not like this book; but those who are tired of the same old black-and-white clichés with regard to Germany will welcome it as a breath of fresh air. Unconditional Hatred will find its readership, despite an almost complete blackout by the press. The present printing includes the final corrections and last-minute additions of Captain Grenfell. "


"If the evidence I have set out in the last six chapters is reasonably accurate, it follows that the many thousands of British men and women, including a number of my own friends and acquaintances, who still believe that Germany alone was responsible for the two world wars, which she started deliberately, wickedly, and without provocation or excuse, are gravely mistaken. It is not their fault. To reach anything like a balanced judgment on this subject requires much more historical reading than the ordinary person has time to devote to such a purpose.

We were, moreover, told repeatedly by our leaders during the war years that the Germans had done all this. Mr. Churchill, whose influence in shaping national opinion about the enemy was enormous, kept on saying that they had started both wars, in just those words. According to him, Germany was the one and only aggressor; the world pest. Mr. Churchill seemed to think that if Germany could be utterly


crushed, the rest of the world could resume its peaceful ways;


But the complete and absolute victory of the Anglo/American Allies, the necessary prelude to the intended extirpations, had hardly taken place when it crumbled into dust in their hands. The smashing of the German Reich and war machine did not remove "all our evils," as Mr. Churchill had predicted. No sooner was the German military 'menace' out of the way than the ugly scowling form of a new danger was to be seen standing malevolently in its place. Hostile, militant Russian Communism had moved quickly into


the spot where Germany had been. Nor was it the only disturber of the Churchillian conception of a peace-loving world kept in a state of turbulence by the Germans. Very soon, militant Communism forced its way to power in China also.

Mr. Churchill's theory that "the twin roots of all our evils" were Nazi tyranny and Prussian militarism was thus brutally disproved almost as soon as these latter were overthrown. Other tyrannies and other militarisms had come into view behind and beyond them. Other tyrannies just as bad, if not worse; other militarisms just as voracious, if not more so. Germany, after all, had been engaged only in recovering what had previously been German and Austrian territories when she was attacked by Britain and France. But after Germany's collapse and occupation, Russia proceeded to extend her sway by a mixture of force and subversion to include countries to which she had no shadow of a claim: to Western Poland, to Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. German aggression (if aggression it was) was succeeded and surpassed by Russian aggression.

The declared aim of President Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill to end aggression by destroying the German capacity for it was, in fact, one of the greatest failures in history. Never before, perhaps, have so many aggressions been crowded into so short a time as have taken place in the few years since Germany's defeat: the Russian aggressions in Europe, the aggression by some person or persons unknown which drove the Dutch out of Indonesia, the Indian aggression against Hyderabad, the Chinese aggression against Tibet, the North Korean aggression against South Korea, the French aggression against Germany over the Saar, the Chinese aggression against the United Nations in Korea,


and probably several others I have overlooked.*  A pretty good score for any similar period of years, and especially those immediately following the hanging of the German "butcher-bird's" corpse on the wire."


"There was no realistic reason for placing any trust in Russia's loyalty as an ally. She was fighting on the same side as Britain only because she had been driven into it by the German attack. In the twenty-two years between 1917 and 1939, she had set no new example to the capitalist world of international trustworthiness and straight dealing. Far from it. That Mr. Churchill, for a quarter of a century the foremost critic among British politicians of Communist Russia, could have been blind to the adverse possibilities of the Yalta proposals, and particularly the bisection of Germany to the Russian advantage, is hardly conceivable.

But if he was not, how did he come to accept


demands made by Stalin at Yalta which were so violently inconsistent with Britain's declared reason for entering the war with Germany and which, if Mr. Churchill believed what he had preached from 1917 to 1941, were so obviously ominous with future menace to European stability?


WW II in Norway


King-Hall, Stephen . (1946). Secret History of 1939-1940. "THE NORWEGIAN CAMPAIGN". FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE FRENCH GENERAL STAFF.
With an Introduction and Notes by Commander Stephen King-Hall, REPORT NO. 5. Published by NATIONAL NEWS-LETTER, London: Chiswick Press.

Stephen William Richard King-Hall, Baron King-Hall of Headley, Cdr. RN. - Rich text  - PDF full version - Scanned by Jarle Johansen, Feb. 2008 -

How the Allied invasion of Norway (and Sweden) was planned and promoted by the French General Staff in March 1940 (before the German invasion in April 1940):
Excerpt from the Introduction:

        "This report enables you to find out what really happened in connection with the Norwegian campaign.

You will learn, may be to your surprise, the British and French Governments planned to invade Norway and seize the ports and aerodromes on her west coast, but that they were so dilatory in their methods that Hitler decided to go there first. ... 

        A word about the documents. They came into my possession long before the end of the war, so I locked them up. They were captured by the Germans in 1940 at the town of La Charite and reproduced with a limited circulation in order to convince the French that "the capacity for action of the Allies did not measure up to the grandeur of the plan and that (these documents) reveal to a staggering extent the incapacity of the Allied politicians and military commanders".

        I am bound to say that this German criticism had substance in 1940. For example, to quote from a document I have not included in this collection, it is hair-raising in retrospect to learn that on March 16th, 1940, General Gamelin in a Most Secret Memorandum, No. 325 Cab/D.N., was outlining plans to tighten up the blockade "in order to force Germany, through a combination of economic pressure and certain military operations, to emerge from her attitude of military expectancy".

        It will be found (when all the records are available)—I have good reasons for saying this—that Mr. Neville Chamberlain was very anxious not to incite Hitler to emerge from his waiting attitude."

Excerpt from Footnote to News-Letter No. 196 (Written in December, 1945)

    “In the light of the documents published in this report Mr. Churchill's remark in his speech in the House of Commons on 11th April, 1940, takes on a new and fuller meaning. He said: "I must declare to the House that I feel we are greatly advantaged by what has occurred, provided we act with increasing and increasing vigour to turn to the utmost profit the strategic blunder into which our mortal enemy has been provoked." (Hansard, col. 749.)

PROVOKED seems in retrospect to have been the operative word!—K-H.

"Britain was planning to occupy Norway" quote from Discovery Channel program War Months (Video) (larger sections: part1 and part2):

"Because of the country's major ports on the North Sea and its supply routes through the Scandinavian Archipelago, Britain was planning to occupy Norway. By the 1st of March 1940, Hitler had realised this and was persuaded that a pre-emptive invasion was essential."

- The program also carried a short interview with Douglas Dodds-Parker who said:

"We were going to occupy Norway, and the Germans beat it to us by two or three days, because we wanted to stop the supply of iron ore to Germany, which was being shipped across to Narvik and then brought down in the inland waters."

Excerpt from the review of Dodds-Parker's book Setting Europe Ablaze, New York Times, 12 Sept. 1983:

Mr. Dodds-Parker was a Member of Parliament from 1945 to 1974 and participated in the Churchill and Eden Governments  ...

Douglas Dodds-Parker was a senior officer in Special Operations Executive. This British unit, acted on Prime Minister Churchill's order, ''set Europe ablaze,'' from 1941 onward, planning, organizing and directing the operations of saboteurs, assassins and resistance fighters across Europe from the English Channel to the Balkans. Mr. Dodds-Parker, an officer in the Grenadier Guards assigned to ''special duties,'' tells the story well. One would wish he had told more, but some of the operations in which S.O.E. was involved will probably remain secret for many more years. Yet he tells a good deal. ...

By the late summer of 1942, the author found himself in charge of Special Operations over most of the Mediterranean front, ''helping to support the revival of freedom from Greece to France and from Italy to Poland.''

Lord Hankey: POLITICS, TRIALS, AND ERRORS (1950) (Chapter IV, on Norway)

An open-hearted and  truly revealing biography by a first rank British diplomat of the WW I and WW II period. Lord Hankey was the main strategist behind the most effective British weapon in both these wars, as it had been during the Napoleonic Wars, the Atlantic blockade. This book "speaks freely where the official Norwegians are dumb".


Excerpts regarding the Nuremberg trials and the invasion of Norway:

"...  the British Government began to plan their major offensive in Norway a fortnight before the Germans. ...  The whole burden then of the Tribunal's account of this stage of the Norwegian campaign is to show that the Germans were already planning an act of aggression for which punishment must be meted out. They do not mention any of the evidence that the Allies were doing the same thing at the same time, indeed did so even before the Germans!  ... By the end of the year 1939 the work of planning and pre­paration on both sides was far advanced; but still we find the Tribunal piling up the case against the Germans, while forgetting to consider how far it was conditioned by the Allies.  (pp.71-72)


The story of the Norwegian Campaign, as told in the Nurem­berg Judgement, it is not the whole truth. ... By adding the part of the story that has been omitted at the Trial it has been shown that, from the start of planning to the German invasion, both Great Britain and Germany were keeping more or less level in their plans and preparations. Britain actually started planning a little earlier, … Hitler, however, …, held back as long as he dared. … the Nuremberg Tribunal, by describing only the German side of the campaign, went so grievously astray.

Imagine that the situation had been reversed, that Germany had won the war and had set up such a Tribunal, with the same Charter, to try its enemies: does anyone doubt the result, so far as the Norwegian campaign is concerned? … The operation would have been declared an act of aggression and everyone concerned in it — members of the War Cabinet, Chiefs of Staff, Joint Planning Committees,Admirals, Generals and Air Marshals galore would,would, on the Nuremberg analogy, have beentried, condemned and executed! Politics and legal Trials of this sort do not mix. They are grievous errors for which we all pay dearly in years of waiting - waiting for a Peace which cannot be born of vengeance but must flow from justice." (pp.78-79)

The matter is much worse than what Hankey claims. Hankey forgets that Norway was not a neutral nation in practice, since she had allowed herself to be forced into an economic alliance with Great Britain (blockade, merchant fleet etc), thereby making a Germany invasion and occupation legal according to international law.


The standard reference work on the Western Powers' Campaign in Norway during April-May 1940.
This book also "speaks freely where the official Norwegians are dumb".

B.H. Liddell Hart, (1970). History of the Second World War, G. P. Putnams Sons, New York.

This book by probably the most recognised British historian of WW II, again "speaks freely where official Norwegians are dumb". An interesting point is that Hart shows the smallness of the German force which captured Norway, contrary to the Norwegian national myth of overwhelming German power.

Russell Grenfell Unconditional Hatred. German War Guilt and the Future of Europe, New York: THE DEVIN-ADAIR COMPANY, 1953 (In German: Bedingungsloser Haß),

"Twin brother to the hatred propaganda is the Innocence Line which the politicians, abetted by 'patriotic' historians and international lawyers, draw through past and present events. Every aggression, act of brigandage, or piece of savagery on the home side of the line is labeled as part of "the great historic processes" of human development or a legitimate act of reprisal or some such saving term. But the same things on the enemy side become monstrous crimes against peace and humanity punishable by death.

To give just one example; it will be remembered what a hullabaloo was made in Britain about the wicked German aggression against Norway in 1940. At Nuremberg in 1946 the German Grand Admiral Raeder was accused of participating in that aggression and was given the fearful sentence of imprisonment for life—that is, he was sentenced to die in prison. But the publication in 1952 of the Official British History of the Norwegian Campaign has revealed the shaming fact that plans had been prepared as early as November 1939 for an Anglo-French invasion of Norway under cover of helping the Finns against the Russians; and those plans were not put into operation only because the Russo-Finnish war came to an unexpectedly early end before all was ready. "

[page 256]

F. William Engdahl : "HALFORD MACKINDER'S  NECESSARY WAR" See also Bill's original without my highlighting.

From the draft of Chapter 11, on the German invasion of Scandinavia and BeNeLux-France in April-June 1940. How Germany was set up by France & Britain, and how Hitler's anglophile fantasies and naive chivalry towards France & Britain, lost him the war already in June 1940.

Engdahl is also author of  the best seller: A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order, 1993, republished in German in 2002, and republished in English 2004. Some of Bills' more recent articles on geopolitics and international finance may be found here: www.studien-von-zeitfragen.de See also Bill's own site: www.engdahl.oilgeopolitics.net

Norden in the European State System a presentation of Einar Maseng's forgotten analysis, by Lars Mjøset, Prof. of Sociology, Oslo, June 2003


THE NYGAARDSVOLD-CABINETS FINEST HOUR by Sven Blindheim, Dag og Tid. Discussion, Tuesday 3. August 2000 p 21.

Svein Blindheim, Brigadier General and former SOE soldier in "Kompani Linge", opposes the self-prasing and official academic version of WW II history in Norway by Prof. Grimnes, Skodvin and their disciples. Collective guilt, bookburning and sliencing has been used, precisely the methods one pretended to combat in WW II. Bleindheim especially opposes the following claim by Grimnes:

"There are heros in history. Each and every period will have to chose its own. In the case of our time I suggest the government of Nygaardsvold in 1940."


Reflections - My own comments (drafts by Arno Mong Daastøl  - amdaastol.com)

Preparations for WW II - Economic Warfare: "Total war" - On Britain's long tradition of warfare against the civilian population, disregarding international treaties.

British Encirclement and Encouragement - The Real Story of Appeasement  

(i.e. British encirclement of France, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and encouragement of Germany's ambitions)

- How Great Britain encouraged the southern and eastward expansion of Germany in order to make it serve as a bulwark against Soviet expansion. This changed when "the Focus group's people" (Churchill, Amery, Duff Cooper etc) took over during the period 1939-1940, since they regarded Germany as a greater threat.

Stalin's ploys against both Germany and the Western powers, as a mirror image of the British plans, are indeed necessary to understand the preparations for WW II - as reported also on recent English TV documentaries.

The role of NORTRASHIP (Norwegian merchant fleet) in the British WW II strategy  (To be greatly revised and expanded)

For obvious reasons, this matter has been left most obscure, since Great Britain forced Norway to take side in the battle during early fall 1939, more than half a year before she was attacked by Germany. This attack was therefore, and for several other reasons, legitimate - in terms of international law.

1905 og deretter 1940 en logisk følge? (in Norwegian)
- Unionsoppløsningen beredte grunnen for okkupasjonen av Norge i 1940.
 ("1905 and 1940 - a logical result. The dissolution of the union prepared the ground for the occupation of Norway in 1940")


Material in Scandinavian

(with commentaries in English)

Modern European History


Verdensdespotiet og havets frihet, ( PDF ) by Prof. of International Law, Herman Harris Aall , Oslo: Nikolai Olsen 1939

("World Despotism and the Freedom of the Seas")

This well documented book discusses Britain's traditional rule of violence over the Seas, and the efforts of the neutral states, especially Scandinavia and the Netherlands, to promote a Rule of Law over the Seas. The book was translated into German as: Weltherrschaft und die Rechtlosigkeit der Meere, Essen: Essener Verlagsanstalt, 1940.   


Material by Einar Maseng, Norway's Ambassador to Moscow , 1940 :

Hvem var det som dro Norge inn i krigsulykken  by Einar Maseng, (Nationen, April 1955)

("Who pulled Norway into the disaster of war")  A must read.


Maseng, Einar. (1953). 1905 OG 1940. En leksjon i maktpolitikk. Oslo: Tanum PDF format

("1905 and 1940 - A lecture in Power Politics ")  A must read !!
    How Norwegian politicians divided the Nordic countries and played along as a vassal state of the European Sea power, Britain.

Utsikt over de nordeuropeiske lands utenrikspolitikk i de siste århundrer III (1972)
( "Perspective on the foreign policy of the North-European countries in the last centuries"  - on the period before WW I )

A brilliant manuscript from around 1965 (in Norwegian) by the late diplomat Einar Maseng.
It was meant to be volume 3 in his multivolume masterpiece, but he did not manage to finish it before he died in 1972.

Maseng, Einar. (1964-72) Utsikt over de nord-europeiske staters utenrikspolitikk i de siste århundrer,
Vol. nr 1. (1964). 1700-tallet, Oslo: Tanum
Vol. nr 2. (1967). 1800-tallet. Nasjonalismens rhundre, Oslo: Tanum
nr 3. (1972). 1900-tallet. Det politiske samarbeid innen Norden opphrer, unpublished manuscript, Oslo

All 3 were republished 2005 by Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. ISBN: 8215009387
(including the formerly unpublished manuscript)

This final manuscript (1972) is about the most fascinating period of all, the years before the cataclysm in 1914, and therefore also about the reasons and preparations for the 2 largest wars in the 20th Century and all of mankind.
(... Today, we are witnessing a somewhat similar situation between the USA and China).

Se also his other books:

Maseng, Einar. (1952) Det kløvde Norden mellom de store stater,
Oslo: Tanum
Maseng, Einar. (1953) 1905 og 1940, En leksjon i maktpolitikk, Oslo: Tanum

Einar Maseng's works are highly recommended
All Maseng's books and articles are in the geopolitical tradition of land and sea powers.... with a sharp focus on geography, resources, transport and economics. Maseng had a particular eye to Scandinavia and Norway and therefore paid attention to the conflicts between the small vs. big states.

Einar Maseng was educated in an officers school - Krigsskolen - the year of 1904. He left the army in 1917 and became the first Norwegian Delegate in den Haag; then Charge d'Affaires in Santiago de Chile; General Consul in Hamburg, Germany; Norwegian Delegate at the League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland; and Norwegian Ambassador in Moscow 1939-1941. Maseng was frozen out of the Anglo-American oriented Norwegian establishment after WW II, due to his Continental sympathies - and in spite of his loyalty to the Government. He lived his last years in Uppsala in Sweden.


Obituary (15 Nov. 1972) in Norwegian :

Einar Maseng er død

Tidligere sendemann Einar Maseng, Oslo, er død, 92 år gammel.
Einar Maseng ble student i 1899, offiser i 1904 og avsluttet den militære høyskolen i 1907. Han ble innbeordret til armestyrelsen 1909-10 og tok avskjed i 1917. Fra 1922 var han generalkonsul og charge d'affaires i Chile, og i 1925 ble han generalkonsul i Hamburg. Fra 1934 var Maseng Norges faste delegat ved Folkeforbundet i Geneve, og fra 1939 til 1941 var han sendemann i Sovjetunionen.
Maseng var styremedlem i og leder for flere bedrifter og var medlem av flere offentlige kommisjoner.
Sendemann Maseng var ridder av 1. klasse av St. Olavs Orden, og han hadde flere utenlandske ordener.

Da Norge ble en alliert. Einar Maseng prøvde holde Norge nøytralt. Vestalliansen ble hans fall. By Lars Mjøset, Klassekampen, 6 May 2006
("When Norway became an ally. Einar Maseng tried to keep Norway neutral. The Western Alliance became his fall") 

Norden in the European State System a presentation of Einar Maseng's forgotten analysis, by Lars Mjøset, Prof. of Sociology, Oslo, June 2003

Modern Nordic History

Regardless of political or historical sympathies, "the truth must be known".

Few well-known Norwegian authors have had the courage
- to speak and write according to their intelligence and conscience. Among those few free souls I mention these:
Jens Bjørneboe, Johan Scharffenberg, Johan Vogt, CC, Fritjof Frank Gundersen, Egil Ulateig, Kjell Fjørtoft, Hjalmar Marcussen, Sven Erik Dahl, Roar Henriksen.

Hearford, Arthur. (1940). Norge og England (in Norwegian) is an amazing collection of quotes from Norway's leading persons in cultural affairs on England and especially her relation to Norway during the period 1865-1939, but mainly after 1900 (quoting authors such as these : Ibsen, Vinje, Bjørnson, Garborg, Wergeland etc.). Here are a few teasers


For articles in Norwegian, the magazine Alternativt Samfunn ("Alternative Society") carries many open-minded and unorthodox articles.


The predecessor of Alternativt Samfunn was Samfundsliv and was founded by Brochmann:

Den 9. april - Norge og verdensrevolusjonen, ( PDF ) by B. Dybwad Brochmann, Bergen: Eget forlag, 1940
("April the 9th. Norway and the World Revolution") 

This book is something quite apart from the main stream, and should therefore be of interest not only as a curious point of view, but also as a more "neutral" and non-partisan opinion on the matters in 1940. Brochmann airs extremely clear opinions and takes a strong side for the occupying German force - for reasons that are thoroughly debated in this book. Brochmann crucifies the illegal and unconstitutional actions by the parliament's politicians during the years ahead of the war, and discusses the traditional and unholy alliance between Labour, the State Lutheran Church and the Money Power. He attacks financial capitalism and promotes a moral and productive system. He positions the centre of this outmoded system of privileges in London and debates the efforts of Germany to promote a world revolution in the interests of morality and the labouring man. Brochmann was tried for his opinions after the war, and was sentenced to 3,5 years of imprisonment.


Brochmann was the leader of a Christian "revival" party, Samfundspartiet, and representative member of the Norwegian Parliament. Brochmann was a harsh critic of both Marxism and the Capitalist system. At his time, Brochmann was the only representative who refused to receive salary for his work in the Parliament. He defended the Jewish people and was also the only representative who voted against a forced sterilisation of the Romani people.

The material below in short discuss these themes

TV documentaries


"Britain was planning to occupy Norway" quote from a Discovery Channel program War Months (larger sections: part1 and part2) (10, 38 and 18 mb)

"Haakon og Maud" - compressed DivX version, part one and part two (xx mb)
("Haakon and Maud")  - Norwegian Television documentary. Shown in Norway 2005 and in Sweden 2006.

A Norwegian biographical documentary showing King Haakon's extreme Anglophilia where his stated highest wish as Danish Prince Carl "was to become a British naval officer".  Prince Carl became King Haakon of Norway in 1905 and escaped to London in 1940 - Louise was his Swedish born mother Princess Louise of Sweden, then Queen Louise of Denmark).


Made by Egemont, based on Tor Bomann-Larsens (four volume) biography Haakon og Maud, vol 1 and  2: "Komme ditt rike" (i.e. 'Come Your Kingdom'). A movie by Stig Andersen, Bjørn Engvik, Kenny Sanders and Ingrid Wevang. Story teller: Kaj Remlov, Kjersti Holmen (Louise), Jan Grønli (Carl).


Krigshelt i utakt - compressed DivX version (118 mb) Articles and comments to this documentary
('War hero out of step')

An astonishing documentary biography of Svein Blindheim, shown on Norway's main national TV channel NRK1. (Shown 5th and 15th June 2006). Blindheim is a former Brigadier General and SOE leader of the Oslo groups of "Kompani Linge". A number of leading war historians are interviewed, such as Francois Kersaudy, Lars Borgersrud, Ole Kristian Grimnes and Lars Erik Vaale.

NRK's description of the documentary:
"Norwegian documentary. The war hero and Kompani Linge-veteran Svein Blindheim confronts our close history, the myths about the Second World War and the national self-image we have created after the war. Only now, more than 60 years after and as he himself is approaching 90, is it possible to tell his story."

German Soldiers used for mine clearing , Verdens Gang, 8 April 2006
("German Soldiers used for mine clearing")

In Norway, 275 German soldiers died after the German capitulation due to their forced work as mine clearers - in violation of the 1929 Geneva Treaty. Like in Eisenhower's hunger camps in France and Germany and later George W. Bush, Norway reclassified, redefined the POWs as D.E.F. "Disarmed Enemy Forces." Noticeably, Norway has to date not admitted, nor asked for pardon, nor suggested any compensation for these peacetime atrocities.

Svein Blindheim's war memoirs :
Den lange reisen 
Et oppgjør med krigen,  Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2006
('The Long Journey'. Confront
ing the war')

En avviker ser tilbake ,  Aftenposten, 12 November 2006  
('A heretic looks back')

Blindheim again confronts the Norwegian government of 1940, and criticises the British for letting other people bleed for them without making much effort themselves. He hails the Russian efforts but also criticises Stalin's disrespect for human lives.

En bitter røst - Vreden tar overhånd , Dagbladet, 30 October 2006
('A bitter voice - Wreath takes over')

Excerpt: "De tapte, men ikke for fienden de reiste seg mot, de ble dolket i ryggen av udugelige politikere og en rekke forhold. Det er det militære nederlaget og årsakene til det som er bitterhetens kilde, og at de som ville slåss ble sviktet av sine egne. Svikerne kom ikke bare unna med det, de fikk vende hjem som helter og seierherrer. "

Translated: "They lost, but not to the enemy they rose against, they were stabbed in the back by incompetent politicians and a row of circumstances. It is the military defeat and the reasons for it that is the source of bitterness, and that they who wanted to fight were deceived by their own. The deceivers not only got away with it, they returned home as heroes and victors."

See also Svein Blindheim's other memoir : Offiser i krig og fred, Oslo: Det norske samlaget, 1981



Aall, Dr. Herman Harris & Prof. Nils Gjelsvik. (1932). Revolusjonspolitikk og norsk lov  ( Word ) Preface by Knut Hamsun (Nobel Laureate in Literature)
("Revolution Policy and Norwegian Law")

A study of the the relationship between Norwegian revolutionary movements and the Norwegian Constitution, based on a Parliamentary Report on the revolutionary movements (Stortingsinnstilling nr. 184, 1932 )
    This is also an important and well documented study of the policy of the Comintern (the international Communist organisation) and therefore of Stalin's international ambitions, thereby giving crucial background information for the pre-WW II events in Europe and the rest of the world. This makes e.g. F. D. Roosevelt's policy appear as embarrassingly naive, to say the least.
    Regarding of the Norwegian case, the study documents in details how Norwegian politicians, Communists and Labour and the LO trade union federation, were directly subordinated to Moscow orders, also after Labour's so-called breach with Comintern in 1923. The study furthermore documents how the LO and the Labour party were paid huge sums by Moscow to advance revolution in Norway, and make her a Soviet "ally" with Russia (on one occasion alone, one million crowns, or around 30 million US dollars in the year 2007, in a country with only 3 million people).
    This study therefore argues, on the legal basis of the Norwegian Constitution and the Parliament report, that these revolutionaries therefore were traitors, in the service of a foreign power, and should be treated as such. Furthermore, the study criticises the other political parties that they are too submissive to these "Moscow servants".
    This is a part of history that has simply been left out of official Norwegian history writing, and similarly so in the recent "revisionist" book by Lars Borgersrud's "Konspirasjon og kapitulasjon", which only looks at the coup-plans of "the other side", and which were minor in comparison to the Moscow plans.
    To these plans should be added the invasion plans of the USSR against Scandinavia and northern Norway in particular, the so-called operation 'Reindeer' or 'Poro' in Russian, starting in 1932 and rehashed in 1935/36. (See Wikipedia and Axis forum).


NORTRASHIP -  The British takeover of the Norwegian merchant fleet during WWI and WW II

- in both wars effectively forcing Norway out of neutrality and into the Western Powers group against Germany.
Britain and France forced Norway to take side in the battle before she was attacked by the Germans.
specific details of the matter are still obscure, in spite of much historic research.

The Norwegian merchant fleet saved Britain in its most difficult time - e.g. by carrying 40 % of its oil until 1942 when the US joined the war against Germany. Admittedly this was done under pressure from Britain, starting one week after the British declaration of war in Sept. 1939, precisely as during WW I. At the same time, we might say that the merchant fleet doomed Norway, doomed her to be an appendix to the great Sea Powers, the UK and then the US. At present the great offshore resources in the North Sea and in the arctic Barents Sea, serves the same function.

Tonnasjeavtalen mellom Norge og England in 1939. Norge tar første steg inn i den 2. verdenskrig by John Sand
('The tonnage agreement between Norway and Great Britain 1939 -  Norway takes the first step into WW II' )

After declaring war on Germany in Sept. 1939, Britain found herself insufficiently supplied with ships and especially oil tankers, in order to provide for herself. The only country that had a sufficient supply of suitable ships was Norway. By giving in to hard British pressure Norway de facto became an ally of Great Britain against Germany Nov. 20th 1939. This transferred large parts of the huge Norwegian merchant fleet (including 150 oil tankers) to British commando for freight rates half of the going world rates, de facto subsidising British war efforts against Germany. The Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Halvdan Koht, lied to the German Ambassador, Braer, giving others (the Norwegian Ship-owners' Association) the blame, as he later did in other matters. He further neglected a German warning against extension of the agreement and gave Britain another 10 oil tankers. Inability or unwillingness to fend off British breakages of Norwegian neutrality made the stance on the British side even more obvious.

Norge betaler store bidrag. ('Norway pays large tributes') by John Sand, Nordlandsposten. Onsdag 23 september 1992

This articles fills in the above article on the same issue with some additional information, for instance that the British payment for the ships freights was not to be controlled by the Norwegian Ship-owners but instead were controlled by Britain in remained (in banks accounts) in pound sterling, until after the war. Thereby the British shipping expenses was not counted as import until after the war and the value of the British currency was temporarily protected. A standard reference on the agreement may be found here

My own loose reflections on the role of NORTRASHIP (Norwegian merchant fleet) in the British WW II strategy. To be thoroughly updated.


The Allied provocations and the German attack on Norway

The official report by the Norwegian Parliament ('Storting') on the background for the occupation of Norway: (32 mb)


1905-1940: Norge som kasteball mellom stormaktene speech by Major-General Torkel Hovland
("1905-1940: Norway as a shuttlecock between the Great Powers")

Speech in Norwegian for the local history association "Oppegård Historielag", 14 December 2005.
Unfortunately the recording is of bad technical quality.
Before retiring, Hovland was for 16 years in charge of the Norwegian army in Northern Norway, considered one of the most important parts of the European defence sectors.

Hvem var det som dro Norge inn i krigsulykken  by Einar Maseng, Ambassador to Russia (Nationen, April 1955)

("Who pulled Norway into the disaster of war")  A must read.


Den virkelige sammenheng by Johan Scharffenberg, psychologist and head physician - 25. October 1948, Morgenbladet nr. 184
("The real context")
- On the French and British provocations of a German attack on Norway, documented by German and French sources.


Professor Castberg og svenskeutredningen by A. E. Hedem, Reverend (Nationen, 13 March 1962)

("Professor Castberg and the Swedish report")

About the unconstitutional farce trails after the war that violated basic court procedures - intentionally designed to move attention away from the government that was responsible 1935-1940.


9. april og de dannede nordmenn by Av Morten H. Magnus, Oslo (Aftenposten, 1985)

Forspillet før 9. april 1940 og kort om 60 dagers krigen i Nord-Norge  by Astrup Nilssen - the preparations for the invasion - and about the 60 day war in Northern Norway (written by a participant, a war veteran against the invaders in Narvik)

Den Absolutt Nødvendige Krig by John Sand -
('The Absolutely Necessary War')  How the pretence of Norway's continued fight against occupation came about.

Historiker i særklasse - Skodvin og de vanskelige realitetene by John Sand, Folk og Land, nr.2 1998
("A Distinguished Professor of History - Skodvin and the Difficult Realities") Prof. of History, Magne Skodvin's denial of the allied French-British provocations for a German attack on Norway - and their plans for an allied occupation of Norway - the counterevidence.

Professor Skodvin og 2. verdenskrig
by John Sand, Morgenbladet, 30th October 1978
("Professor Skodvin and World War 2") 

 Prof. of History, Magne Skodvin's denial of the allied French-British provocations for a German attack on Norway - and their plans for an allied occupation of Norway - the counterevidence.


Norge - en engelsk provins?  by John Sand, Nordlandsposten 31st May 1995
("Norway - an English Province?")
Some events in the British dominance of Norway

Lord Hankeys oppgjør by Johan Scharffenberg, psychologist and head physician - 1950 Morgenbladet nr. 181,
("Lord Hankey's day of reckoning") 
Review of Lord Hankeys memoir : Politics, Trials and Errors. Pen-in-hand. Oxford 1950
- concerning "unconditional surrender" and the 1945 war tribunals.



Norwegian amateurism

Vi bør erkjenne vår egen skyld by Johan Scharffenberg, psychologist and head physician  - 9. april 1948 Morgenbladet nr. 184
("We should admit our own guilt")
- On the British provocations of a German attack on Norway, dealing with the background from 1907 and British threats against Norway since 1918.

A must read.


Supplement til en TV-debatt - "Det brukne geværs politikk, Norsk Militært Tidsskrift  nr. 6/90 by John Sand

On the deliberate left wing policy to break down the Norwegian armed defence - until March 1940

Norge april 1940 - Om Knut Hamsun's syn på mobiliseringen i aprildagene 1940 - og om fremtredende nordmenns oppfattning i samme sprsml. by John Sand, April 2003
("Norway April 1940 - On  Knut Hamsun's opinion on the mobilisation in April 1940 - and on prominent Norwegians' perception in the same question").
A must read.

John Sand documents the French-British provocations for a German attack on Norway and shows how the military preparedness for war in Norway was close to nil. Furthermore, the same people who had starved the military, turned around for a pointless sacrifice of young men against an overwhelming invader. Finally John Sand shows how the King and Government were forced to go to Great Britain.

Varsla før 9. april  by Olav Riste, professor emeritus, Aftenposten 20th May 2005 (representing the established academic view in Norway)
("The warnings before the 9th of April")

Faghistorisk prostitusjon by Generalmajor Torkel Hovland, Aftenposten, 26th May 2005 Author of General Fleischer
("Professional historist prostitution")

Professor Riste og varslene før 9. april, by John Sand, May 28th 2005
("Professor Riste and the warnings before 9th of April")


The Norwegian capitulation - and the question of legitimacy of the "London-government"

Kapitulasjonene 10. juni 1940, 8. mai 1945 og"Elverumsfullmakten" by Astrup Nilssen (war veteran against the invaders in Narvik)
- the capitulations of 1940 and 1945 and the so-called Elverum authorization (from Parliament to the exile Government)

Jussprofessor i særklasse by John Sand, Folk og Land, april 2003
A Distinguished Professor of Law")
- Prof. of Law, J.B. Andens' denial of the treaty of capitulation 1940 during the trials of the traitors.

Til kamp mot historiefortielse  Aftenposten, 16 March 2002. Torgrim Rolfsen reviews Finn Thrane's book "Vi ville et land som var frelst og fritt" ("Fight the Silencing of History")
Review of Finn Thrane's "We wanted a country that was delivered and free" - the story of the Norwegian National Socialists)

Var det Norge som kapitulerte? Aftenposten, 27 April 2002. Prof. Skodvin responds to Rolfsen above. ("Was it Norway that Capitulated?")

"ELVERUMS-FULLMAKTEN" Hva var nå det?, by John Sand, Oslo: Historisk Forlag, 1999. (Scanned by Astrup Nilssen, December 2003)
Part 1    Part 2    Part 3  (with appendix).

John Sand has here written a scrutinising legal study over the Parliamental so-called "Elverum Authorization", which allegedly transferred full Parliamental authority to the Norwegian Government, which soon after went in exile in London - after having capitulated to the invading German forces.

John Sand has written many articles about the war and many have been printed in the media. Much of it shatters post-war political correctness. His documentation shows how the German attack on Norway in 1940 was provoked by British and French actions, how legal trials against the traitors was a sham protecting "the winners" from further scrutiny regarding fraudulent actions during the war. John Sand's articles are all VERY thoroughly documented.

OKW / WPr.;
(d.v.s. Oberkommando der Wehrmacht og (sannsynligvis) Wehrmacht Propagandaabteilung):

Retningslinjer for opptreden ved personlig kontakt med den norske befolkning.
(Instructions for behaviour, regarding personal contact with the Norwegian population)


Collaboration with the enemy

'Military' Collaboration


The Nazi fight against Norwegian soldiers was aided by Norwegians - who were commended after WW II.

The worst collaboration during the German campaign in April 1940, was punished after the war by promoting e.g. two of the leaders successively to Ministers ('Secretaries') of Law in 1945, in charge of the very same prosecutions against wartime collaborators, due to the fact that they had the "right" party books, those of the Labour Party. Værnes airport among others, was upgraded by 3500 workers in order to make it suited for German bombers and Stukas, who in turn bombed, the towns of Kristiansund, Åndalsnes, Namsos, Steinkjær, Bodø and Narvik. Without Værnes this had been impossible. This is documented in these articles.


Tyskerarbeidet eksemplet Værnes by Truls Røkke
("German works - the example of Værnes airport")

MENINGSLØS KRITIKK, by John Sand, sent to Aftenposten, 4 Mai 2005 - (Same content as above but more thorough)
("Senseless criticism")

General Dietls Redningsmenn by John Sand, sent to Nordlys, 4 Sept. 1999 - ditto
("The Saviours of General Dietl")



Economic Collaboration:


Oslo-konsortiets befatning med IG Farben  by Per Gjendem
("The relations of the "Oslo- consortium" with IG Farben")

Per Gjendem shows how the leading business people were except from being tried for treason after WW II, in spite of their crucial importance for the German war machine.


Hvordan kommer Orkla-konsernet fra vår kritiske etterprøving av det utilbørlige samarbeidet med den tyske okkupajonsmakta? by Per Gjendem

("How does the Orkla-company get through our critical evaluation of the inappropriate collaboration with the German occupational force?")



Political Collaboration:

Prestigious Norwegians also did their part in collaboration on a more political scale.

Labour wartime engagement with the enemy and insufficient postwar court proceedings by Per Gjendem
A must read

Einar Gerhardsen (Labour) was an amazing person. He was Norway's social democratic post-war Prime Minister from 1945 until 1965 (with some interuptions).
During the summer 1940 he worked for collaboration with the invading German forces. In 1945 he was among the initiators for merging the Labour Party with the Communist Party. In 1948 he switched once again, and became the leader of the McCarthy campaign in Norway. And do remember that in June 1940, he was an initiator for merging the Labour Party with the nationalist group Fædrelandlaget ('The Patriotic Union') See below.

Gerhardsen ville samarbeide med tyskerne , Aftenposten 20 Oct. 1999 ("Gernardsen wanted to collaborate with the Germans")
This is a report from a press conference regarding the first professional biography on Einar Gerhardsen by Prof. Finn Olstad, attended by several academics and revealing that Gerhardsen was an profound admirer of the Soviet Union .

Kort supplement om EINAR GERHARDSEN by John Sand,
("Short supplement on Einar Gerhardsen") April 2003
Some info on the background of Norway's "national father" after WW II. He had promoted illegitimate activities as a labour rebel and later promoted collaboration with the German occupying force in 1940, "in close co-operation with Germany act in order to secure the Norwegian position in the new Great-German Europe".

Landsfaderen og den brysomme revisjonismen, by Per Gjendem - same theme as above but more extensive

("The father of the nation and the troublesome revisionism")

Trygve Lie was another Labour Party leader, equally an expert in opportunism.

He worked for years for the establishment of a Soviet regime in Norway under the guidance of Comintern, even receiving payment from Moscow for his services. Later he served English interests, e.g. by generously "handing over" parts of the Norwegian merchant fleet to London, at a time when Norway presumably was supposed to be a neutral nation (before 9 April 1940). These services to foreign powers probably earned him the position as the first Secretary-General of the United Nations.


Paal Berg og Kongen by John Sand, Folk og Land, mars 2003
("Paal Berg and the King")
- The general prosecutor and also the leader of the resistance, his request for the King's abdication1940, his collaboration with the occupant forces.




Norwegian Political Intrigues - War and Post-War


Statsministerkuppet by Harald Berntsen Dagbladet, 23 March 2007
("The Prime Minister Coup")  The story of Norway's "national father" Einar Gerhardsen, and his trail of deceit against fellow Labour politicians, starting during the war.
Berntsen argues that the government style had its background in the half-syndicalism of the Labour Party's leadership (Martin Tranmæl in particular), and then transformed this into a modern kind of Corporatism.

(Comment: A parallel here is Mussolini's transformation of Syndicalism into Fascism, and Hitler's similar efforts)


The (East) Front Fighters:

De norske frontkjemperne - hva litteraturen sier og veien videre, by av Ivo de Figueiredo
("The Norwegian Front Fighters - What the Literature Says and the Road Ahead")



The German Capitulation


Nytt Søkelys på krigsavslutningen, by Per Gjendem

("New Light on the War's End")



Trials - Post-WW II


Under en hårdere himmel  (1957) Etterord  av Jens Bjørneboe.  Review in English

In this postscript to his novel, the self-declared Anarchist Jens Bjørneboe describes the post-war trials as a farce worthy of similar characterisations as Stalin's Moscow trials, with the same (lack of) logic and fair legal treatment, and with national tragic repercussions for the whole judicial tradition in post-war Norway.

Juridisk var det verre. Den såkalte ” landssvikanordning” som ble dekretert i London i 1944, grunnlovsstridig uten Stortingets sanksjon, uten offentliggjørelse før dens ikrafttreden, medførte et nytt surrealistisk innslag i norsk rettsliv. Anordningen fikk tilbakevirkende kraft, hvilket ingen norsk lov kan ha. Den medførte også med tilbakevirkende kraft dødsstraffens gjeninnførelse for sivile forbrytere mot Staten. Uten nevneverdige vanskeligheter fikk man i tidens fylde Høyesterett til å akseptere marerittet....

Landsvikanordningens tilbakevirkende kraft ble begrunnet ved at man kalte det en amnestilov. ... En amnestilov som i Norge muliggjorde 25 henrettelser må sies å være enestående i sitt slag. ...

Et siste synspunkt som må nevnes er at min undersøkelse av landsvikoppgjørets dokumenter var det første som vakte min mistanke overfor norsk rettsvesen. Hva jeg senere har skrevet i romaner og skuespill om et anakronistisk demoralisert rettsapparat har sin første opprinnelse i innsikten i landsvikoppgjøret. Det er til dags dato min mening at landsviksoppgjørets totale brudd mellom rettspleie
og moral har vært, og er, en livsskade for norsk rettsliv. Smittestoffet fra fascismen ble overført i de dager da vi feiret vår demokratiske frihet. ...

Lover med tilbakevirkende kraft, dødstraffens gjeninnførelse, ”de generalpreventive hensyn”, er de slagord under hvilke de store reaksjonære synspunkter ble gjeninnført i efterkrigstidens strafferettspleie her i landet."

Menneskerettigheter, fred og forsoning by Egil Lindholm, in Alternativt Samfunn #4, 2005

("Human Rights, Peace and Reconciliation")


THE NYGAARDSVOLD-CABINETS FINEST HOUR by Sven Blindheim, Dag og Tid. Discussion, Tuesday 3. August 2000 p 21.

Svein Blindheim, Brigadier General and former SOE soldier in "Kompani Linge", opposes the self-prasing and official academic version of WW II history in Norway by Prof. Grimnes, Skodvin and their disciples. Collective guilt, bookburning and sliencing has been used, precisely the methods one pretended to combat in WW II. Blindheim especially opposes the following claim by Grimnes:

There are heros in history. Each and every period will have to chose its own. In the case of our time I suggest the government of Nygaardsvold in 1940

En krigsmedaljes bakside by Helge Seip, Minister of Finance, Editor (Aftenposten, 1 June,1988)
("The Backside of a War Medal")
A must read.

Minister Seip discuss the "disappeared" war industrial archives, which would have led to a major escalation of the trials - or a total stop of the trials, because of the magnitude involved - So in order to have the trials against NS members, these archives had to be "removed".

Kretsens erobring av rettsapparatet , by Lorenz Vogt (Director of the National Federation of Employers) - Tønsberg Blad, 12 desember 1947

A description of how a political 'clique' took over the construction of the legal trials after 1945, how the same clique ruled during those trials - contrary to acknowledged Western rule of Law..


Kraftige uttalelser av overlege Scharffenberg by Johan Scharffenberg, psychologist and head physician Privat til Lofotposten 25.10.1948 ("Tough remarks by head physician Scarffenberg")

- On how the real culprits for the war disaster get away with it.


Ilja Ehrenburg og sovjetisk krigspropaganda, by John Sand
("Ilja Ehrenburg and Soviet war propaganda")


Oppløsning av rettsbegrepene by Johan Scharffenberg, psychologist and head physician - 1947 Morgenbladet
("Dissolution of the concepts of justice")

About the mistrials and unprincipled use of legal standards for war criminals after WW II.


Straffede og ustraffede gjerninger by Johan Scharffenberg, psychologist and head physician, Morgenbladet

("Punished and non-punished deeds") On the unprincipled use of legal standards and the trial of the Rector of the University of Oslo after WW II

Dagbladet for 50 år siden  -
(The newspaper) Dagbladet, fifty years ago") On the different legal treatment of people, depending on their political beliefs.

Rettsstatens Historie, Forord av Jarle Johansen

Nå skal alt bli så mye bedre, nå når vi er fri igjen, var omkvedet etter krigen. Ble det det?
Professor dr. juris Jon Skeie: «Vi har aldri i vår historie hatt en sådan rettsløshet.»


Sweden and Denmark:


Fortidens skygger by Egil Lindholm, in Alternativt Samfunn #5, 2005
("Human Rights, Peace and Reconciliation")




Post WW II judicial-political affairs in Norway


The mistreatment of Synnøve F. Taftø 1992 -


The mistreatment of Norulv Øvrebotten 1996 -





Axis' atrocities are described at length elsewhere, so in the service of a more balanced view of history, it is of little interest to reproduce those here. The task here is therefore to bring forward lesser known material, especially regarding the actions of "the other side", the Allies, in particular the Western powers, since Soviet atrocities are relatively well known as well, although the extent of them is less known, in particular regarding the post-war cleansing operations in the Soviet vassal states such as Serbia and Slovenia.

The profound extent and and long lasting effect of the post-war Soviet anti-German propaganda is hardly known at all - nor discussed anywhere. This Soviet post-war propaganda was moulded in the spirit of the Moscow trials, designed to blame Germany and remove attention from Soviet atrocities - also against her own people. The Soviet murder of ca. 21 000 Polish officers in the Katyn forest is just one example of this propaganda and is an exception in the Western media - through the attention it has received. One task is therefore to examine Soviet propaganda further.

Betrayal of Soviet refugees and POWs in the West - Prisoners of War in Germany custody

1946-1947 US President Truman with the other allies sent more than two million Soviet people to the Soviet government. For many this meant their deaths.
The Gulag Archipelago by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, NY:Harper and Row 1973, chapter 2, page 85; Also The Last Secret by Nicholas Bethall, NY 1974. Operation Keelhaul, Julius Epstein, 1973.


Total War (i.e. against the Civilian Population)

1. Bombing

Strategic bombing during World War II (Wikipedia)

Nuking and Firebombing the Japanese

The firebombing of Tokyo happened after Japan had offered to surrender, in January 1945.  The nuking of Hiroshima and Nagasaki took place after Japan offered to surrender unconditionally, 11 July 1945.

The Tokyo Fire Raids, 1945, The Japanese View

"A successful incendiary raid required ideal weather that included dry air and significant wind. Weather reports predicted these conditions over Tokyo on the night of March 9-10, 1945. A force of 334 B-29s was unleashed - each plane stripped of ammunition for its machine guns to allow it to carry more fire-bombs. The lead attackers arrived over the city just after dark and were followed by a procession of death that lasted until dawn. The fires started by the initial raiders could be seen from 150 miles away. The results were devastating: almost 17 square miles of the city were reduced to ashes. Estimates of the number killed range between 80,000 and 200,000, a higher death toll than that produced by the dropping of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima or Nagasaki six months later."

See also:
Edoin, Hoito. The Night Tokyo Burned: The Incendiary Campaign Against Japan, March–August, 1945. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987.

Firebombing the Germans

The Fire. The Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945. by Jörg Friedrich, 2006

"For five years during the Second World War, the Allies launched a trial and error bombing campaign against Germany's historical city landscape. Peaking in the war's final three months, it was the first air attack of its kind. Civilian dwellings were struck by-in today's terms-"weapons of mass destruction," with a total of 600,000 casualties, including 70,000 children."

"Operation Gomorrah" :
Inferno: The Devastation of Hamburg 1943 by Keith Lowe, Review by A.C. Grayling in Financial Times, March 24 2007

"Another reason for success was the scientific nature of the attack, from the intensity and timing of the bombing itself to the proportions of high explosive and incendiary bombs used. These latter included petroleum jelly and phosphorous, which spontaneously reignited on victims' bodies ..."

2. Blockade - and Starvation


Against e.g. France (1767..?), Norway (1807), The South African Republic (1899-1992), Germany during WW I (1914-1919 ) and before and during WW I (1939-1946).



3. Genocide

Expulsion of 15 million Germans (and the "loss" of 2-3 millions of them)

"If the conscience of men ever again becomes sensitive, these expulsions will be remembered to the undying shame of all who committed or connived at them ... The Germans were expelled, not just with an absence of over-nice consideration, but with the very maximum of brutality." Victor Gollancz, Our Threatened Values, London, 1946, p. 96



Ralph Franklin Keeling: GRUESOME HARVEST. The Costly Attempt To Exterminate The People of Germany,  1947 (Word - PDF)

"10 July 2005
On May 8, 1945 the shooting ended in Europe. But, shockingly, the war against Germany went on. Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill had decreed that the German people must suffer - and suffer they did. Driven from their homes, looted of their property, decimated by famine and disease, raped, robbed, and enslaved, millions of Germans - most of them women and children - bore the brunt of what Time magazine called "history's most terrifying piece".
Gruesome Harvest was one of the first books in America to sound the alarm against the victor's postwar war against the Germans. Bristling with contemporary documentation, burning with humanitarian and patriotic outrage, this informed, riveting classic dares to tell the shameful story of how American and Allied policy makers undertook the political, economic, and social destruction of the German people even as they presumed to instruct them in "justice" and "democracy"
Today, as the propaganda war against the Germans wears on in the media and academic life, Gruesome Harvest, written in 1947 by a courageous American, when the decimation of the German race was still official U.S.-Allied policy, tells a vital story, one that must not be suppressed or forgotten."

GENOCIDE of the Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia 1944-1948 (2001) Published by the Danube Swabian Association of the USA

"The expulsion and annihilation of the Donauschwaben is brought to fore in this exposé, a fact being largely ignored when discussing the German expellees in the aftermath of World War II. Especially the younger generations in the English-speaking countries have, in most instances, no inkling regarding the terrible fate their people were subjected to by Tito and his henchmen. The information presented here should help to alleviate this void.
-- Erwin E. Maruna"




Country wise Division


Anglo-American Responsibility for the Expulsion of the Germans, 1944-48 by ALFRED DE ZAYAS



Review (in Danish) by Trommer on Steen Andersen's: Danmark i det tyske Storrum. Dansk økonomisk tilpasning til Tysklands nyordning af Europa 1940-41. 315 s., ill. Lindhardt og Ringhof. Kr. 349,-. ("Denmark in the German Grand Sphere. Danish Economic Adjustment to the New Order in Europe 1940-41.")

- This is a very illustrative Danish contrast to the schisma in Norway, regarding (Danish) collaboration with the German occupying forces,  with a hint to similar collarborative pravtices in France. From the very start, the top governmental buraucracy went along with an integration with German economy, regarding for instance a customs and currency union.
There are two interesting sides to this review. One is the factual angle of the review, unlike the Norwegian emotional angle when dealing with these issues. The other interesting side is the broad agreement on collaboration, and the lack of covering up this fact.

Krigshistorie skrives om  Aftenposten, 22 May 2005 - The Danish voluntary collaboration with Germany was very extensive.
("War history is being rewritten")

Prof. of  history, Ole Lange at the Business School of Copenhagen is leading a research project on economic collaboration and says the archives are so vast that new knowledge will continue to appear for a long time (NB: In contrast, the Norwegian archives "disappeared' immediately after the end of the war, see the articles by Helge Seip and Lorenz Vogt).

Barn omkom i fangeleirer Aftenposten, 25 May 2005 - 10.000 German children refugees died only in 1945 due to Danish shame and hate.
("Children perished in prison camps")

250 000 civilian German refugees arrived in Denmark during the spring 1945, escaping from the Russian forces. 100 000 were under 18 years, and a record was only started in 1947. The last refugees were returned to Germany in 1949.The refugees were kept under extremely primitive conditions and horror stories are plentiful, according to a PhD thesis at the university of Copenhagen by the children physician Kirsten Lylloff.

En skamfläck i den danska historien , Svenska Dagbladet, 14 July 2006
("A Stain on Danish History")

Kirsten Lylloff's has recently been published a book on the post-war Danish camps, where the mortality for German children under 5 was 80 %.


Forgotten Heroes. Spanish Resistance in France 1939-45 French tretment of refugees from the Spanish Civil War.

"Sections of the French establishment clearly feared that the "Reds" and "Anarchists" would bring social revolution to France.

Whilst the refugees were now safe from Franco's army, they were by no means to be allowed their liberty. Instead they were confined in concentration camps on the beaches at Argeles-sur-mer, St.Cyprien and Barcares, penned in by stakes and barbed wire. French police hunted for those who escaped confinement. Inside the camps, shelter, supplies and medical care were virtually non-existent. Strict military discipline prevailed, with frequent roll calls, patrols and constant surveillance. Distribution of left wing papers was forbidden (but not right wing newspapers). Moreover, those identified as "criminals" or "radicals" were taken to separate prison camps, such as the fortress of Collioure and the camp at Le Vernet. Here, Communists and Anarchists were held as prisoners under a regime of hard labour. Those who experienced these camps later recalled that, although they were not places of mass extermination, in many other respects they were every bit as bad as the German concentration camps.

The French government tried to encourage repatriation, both voluntarily and by threats. But by December 1939 there were still at least 250,000 Spaniards in the camps. Building work meant an improvement in conditions, though health, sanitation and food supplies were still dismal. "


German atrocities is extensively described in "orthodox" books and websites. This site is devoted to lesser known material.

Typical of the thorough documentation in Johan Sand's articles is the following, where quotes are inserted as pictures of the original text :

Bakgrunnen for Hitlers Kommando-befehl ("The Background for Hitler's Commando-Order")

Hitler's infamous order to shoot all captured enemy commando soldiers, came as a reprisal against British war crimes against German soldiers and the explicit order from Churchill promoting terror against civilians on the European coasts, after his creation of the Commando groups ("Special Service" or SS) and their first raids on the Norwegian coast in 1941.  In 1940 the British Commandos were formed following Winston Churchill's call for "specially trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast." The outstanding incident was the deliberately failed invasion of Dieppe, France in 1942, designed to convince Stalin that a Western front was impossible at the time. The overriding issue was to stop ongoing German-Russian negotiations regarding an end of their hostilities. The invasion cost thousands of Canadian lives.

Great Britain

How T-Force abducted Germany's best brains for Britain The Guardian, 29 Aug. 2007
 Secret papers reveal post-war campaign to loot military and commercial assets

Reproduction in Norway:
Tok eksperter som krigsbytte Aftenposten, 2. Sept. 2007
Hemmeligholdte dokumenter viser at britene i to år etter krigens slutt bortførte hundrevis av tyske vitenskapsmenn og avtvang tyske industriledere deres forretningshemmeligheter.

Churchill sa nei by John Sand, Nordlandsposten 3 Febr. 1995
("Churchill said no") 
How Churchill sabotaged humanitarian relief to Norway during WW II, even though it was paid by the income from the Norwegian merchant fleet (documented).

Other British and Imperial Material:

Labour Camps: The British Experience  Brendan Clifford reviews a book by Dave Colledge about Britain's domestic concentration camps, carried through with general support.

Extract: "The scheme for 'hardening' in Labour Camps (on penalty of loss of the dole) was devised by Baldwin's Tory government, but , but "was carried through with Ramsay MacDonald's Labour Government and expanded by the 1931 National Government" Between 1929 and 1939, "120,000 men were punished with terms of three months hard labour". The Labour Camps were set up in isolated regions and were conducted under military discipline. They were supported by the TUC as well as the Labour Party, and were opposed and exposed only by the National Unemployed Workers Movement, in which the Communist Party was the leading influence. The "solution" was first proposed around 1890, and was supported by Fabian socialists such as H.G.Wells and G. B. Shaw. Many people of all political tendencies looked on unemployment as a manifestation of biological inferiority, and advocated the 'sterilisation of failures' by one means or another. The 'hardening centres' were freely called Labour Camps or Concentration Camps. In August 1939, in preparation for the war against Germany, the Ministry of Labour issued instructions that the managerial records of its own concentration camps should be weeded out, and much of the documentation was destroyed. And at the end of the war Concentration Camps were in such bad odour that the British ones could not be reopened. Dave Colledge's unique history of them is a useful reminder of what the world was like before 1939. In the course of the war most of the 'biological' conceptions of social problems were sloughed off. And after the war history was written as if those biological notions were peculiar to Germany. They were not."

Britenes Holocaust  - in Bengal 1943 3,5 million Bengalis died of famine due to British actions.
("The British Holocaust") 

See also:
The U
nknown Bengal - Famine Holocaust

Falklandskrigen og folkeretten by John Sand, Nordlandsposten 31 March 1995 

("The Falklands War and the Right of Nations")

Archives expose Churchill's true thoughts on immigrants by David Ward, Monday August 6, 2007, The Guardian 

Extract: "Sir Winston Churchill and his cabinet colleagues, concerned at the number of "coloured people" they thought were moving to Britain to take advantage of the welfare state, considered introducing immigration controls more than 50 years ago, according to records released yesterday from the National Archives.
In hand-written notebooks, the cabinet secretary, Sir Norman Brook, noted that the then home secretary thought there was a good case for excluding "riff-raff". ...

But politically it wd. be represented & discussed on basis of a colour limitation. That wd. offend the floating vote viz., the old Liberals. We shd. be reversing age-long tradn. tht. B. [subjects] have right of entry to mother-country of Empire. We shd. offend Liberals, also sentimentalists."
But fearing public feeling, he said the risk of introducing controls should not be taken "today". He warned: "The col. popns. are resented in Lpl., Paddington & other areas. By those who come into contact with them. But those who don't are apt to take Liberal view."
Another cabinet member referred to an "increasing evil" and said that principles "laid down 200 yrs. ago are not applicable to-day. See dangers of colour discriminn. But other [Dominions] control entry of B. subjects. Cd. we present action as coming into line...& securing uniformity?"
Churchill said the question was whether it might be wise "to allow public feeling to develop a little more - before takg. action...May be wise to wait...But it wd. be fatal to let it develop too far." "

Biological Warfare - British smallpox genocide against American Indians 1754, 1763 - and allegedly against American troops 1775

Silent Weapon: Smallpox and Biological Warfare , BBC History, by Colette Flight, 2002, Bouquet's blankets :
"In fact, Britain was probably the first nation to come up with the idea of using smallpox to kill its adversaries.
    In the 18th century, the British fought France and its Indian allies for possession of what was to become Canada during the French and Indian Wars (1754-63). At the time of the Pontiac rebellion in 1763, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, the Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in North America, wrote to Colonel Henry Bouquet: 'Could it not be contrived to send smallpox among these disaffected tribes of Indians? We must use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.' The colonel replied: 'I will try to inoculate the [Native American tribe] with some blankets that may fall in their hands, and take care not to get the disease myself.' Smallpox decimated the Native Americans, who had never been exposed to the disease before and had no immunity.   
    It has been alleged that smallpox was also used as a weapon during the American Revolutionary War (1775-83). During the winter of 1775-76, American forces were attempting to free Quebec from British control. After capturing Montreal, it looked as if they might succeed. But in December 1775, the British fort commander reportedly had civilians immunised against the disease and then deliberately sent out to infect the American troops. A few weeks later a major smallpox epidemic broke out in the American ranks, affecting about half of the 10,000 soldiers. They retreated in chaos after burying their dead in mass graves."
A GREAT DESOLATION - Yellow Fever, Smallpox and Influenza in American History by Stephanie Steffano-Davis
"There are many account of English using smallpox as a biological weapon. Just before the epidemic of 1757 hit the Ottawa people, according to a chieftain:
The smallpox which they brought from Montreal during the French war with Great Britain ... was sold to them shut up in a tin box ... after they reached home they opened the box; but behold there was another tin box inside ... when they opened the last one they found nothing but mouldy particles .... a great many closely inspected to find out what it meant ... pretty soon [there] burst out a terrible sickness among them. 46"
 "46: Watts, Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997, p.100"
Smallpox: Weapons Of Genocide to instrument of Manufacturing Consent by Samir Hussain  January 13, 2003

"Weapon of genocide to Instrument of manufacturing consent
Speaking of the French and Indian Wars between 1754 and 1767, Henderson writes, “[s]oldiers [of the British army] distributed blankets that had been used by smallpox patients with the intent of initiating outbreaks among American Indians. Epidemics occurred, killing more than 50% of many affected tribes.”49 In the American best-seller “Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies”, Jared Diamond actually goes beyond the culpability of the British army and extends it onto the entire white American population, “(…) as when U.S. whites bent on wiping out ‘belligerent’ Native Americans sent them gifts of blankets previously used by smallpox patients.”50 While Dr. Henderson attributes smallpox with having killed more than 50% of many affected Aboriginal tribes, in “The fox guards the henhouse,” Sherry Sullivan suggests that by the 1880’s “smallpox had already killed off, on average, more than 90% of them.”51 "

49.   supra note 14 at 2128.
    14.   Henderson, DA. “Smallpox as a biological weapon”. Journal of the American Medical Association. 281 (1999): 2128. Online. Internet. 26 Dec. 2002. www.jama.ama-assn.org.
50.   Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The fates of human societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999: p.199.
51: Sullivan, Sherry. “The fox guards the henhouse.” Twisted Badge. Online. Internet. 26 Dec. 2002.  www.twistedbadge.com


Norway - after the end of WW II


FRIMODIGE YTRINGER, by Martha Steinsvik et. al. OSLO 1946
("Frank remarks")  Scanned by Astrup Nilssen, December 2003

This is a book about the illegal political activities in Norway after the end of WW II, written by an independent observer. The book was published by herself without the aid of any own publishing house. It was published in several editions as new material poured in. This third edition was the final.

It has here been divided into 5 sections for easier downloading (in Word format) :
Section 1    Section 2    Section 3    Section 4    Section 5


Tyske soldater brukt som mineryddere Verdens Gang, 8 April 2006, See  video
("German Soldiers used for mine clearing")

In Norway, 275 German soldiers died after the German capitulation due to their forced work as mine clearers - in violation of the 1929 Geneva Treaty. Like in Eisenhower's hunger camps in France and Germany and later George W. Bush, Norway reclassified, redefined the POWs as D.E.F. "Disarmed Enemy Forces." Noticeably, Norway has to date not admitted, nor asked for pardon, nor suggested any compensation for these peacetime atrocities.


Brennhett om helvete by YNGVAR USTVEDT, Verdens Gang, 22 Sept..2003.
Review of Antony Beevor's: Berlin: Nederlaget 1945 On the Russian invasion of Berlin, and the well documented and horrific treatment of the civilian population.  (local copy)


During the WW I and WW II, the US Armed Forces was more racist than any other fighting force. The US practised racial segregation until the 1960s but the armed forces pioneered equality when on 1948-07-26,  President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 9981, ending segregation in the United States Armed Forces.


World War II mass graves open a wound in Slovenia , International Herald Tribune and Reuters, October 22, 2007

Up to 100 000 beaten to death in Slovenia after WW II, by the Tito partisans

"The Lancovo grave is one target of a Slovenian government program to help people come to terms with a hidden legacy of unprecedented slaughter during the war. So far, 540 such sites have been registered across Slovenia. They are believed to hold up to 100,000 bodies. ... "The killings that took place here have no comparison in Europe. In two months after the war, more people were killed here than in the four years of war," said Joze Dezman, a historian who heads the committee for registering hidden graves. Those killed in Slovenia were mostly soldiers who collaborated with the Nazis. Most were slain in the woods without trial. They were victims of a vengeful killing spree by partisans of the Yugoslav leader after British-led Allied troops turned them back from Austria and handed them over. ... "Blood was flowing all over. They were not shot. They were beaten up." ...Slovenians account for about a fifth of all victims but, so far none of the killers have been brought to trial."

GENOCIDE of the Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia 1944-1948  ( Word ) From a review:

"During the last ten years of the 20th century the whole world followed, with horror and detest, the terrible events in multi-ethnic Yugoslavia. .. 50 years earlier, in this very nation, a gruesome genocide, preplanned and directed by its highest leadership, took place. At that time ethnic German citizens of Yugoslavia were the victims, but the civilized world looked the other way.  

        After 1944, about 500,000 ethnic German citizens of Yugoslavia disappeared from their native land. Since Tito assumed power, and up to the deposition of  Milošević, Yugoslavian historical writings with reference to their former ethnic German citizens contained only lies, concealment of crimes and disavowal of the genocide. During more than 50 years the systematic falsification of history was also practiced by Yugoslavian writers. Only now, after they have overcome dictatorship, local people are gradually beginning to ask that the truth be told. One purpose of the book is to help them in this endeavour. It is a terrible, cruel, truth; not a pleasant, but a necessary reading. 

        The ethnic Germans whose ancestors had been living since 1686 in the area of the middle Danube region, then part of Hungary which in turn was part of the Habsburg Empire and since 1918 was attached to Yugoslavia, are of the opinion that world conscience cannot remain silent about the crimes and atrocities committed against them. But without knowledge, conscience cannot be raised. In order for world consciousness to learn about their fate and bring it to its awareness, the facts of the genocide and committed atrocities have to be recollected: orgies of murder, confiscation of  property, disfranchisement, shipment to  concentration camps, planned annihilation by starvation, epidemics, and ethnic re-education of children. – For that purpose, this book attempts to fight against suppression, concealment and forgetfulness. 

        ... over many generations the Danube Swabians, as the majority of the ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia were called, lived peacefully among other nationalities in their native homelands which were incorporated in the newly created Yugoslavia after World War I.

Eugenics ("racial purification")


Eugenics in the USA, as an early model for Germany

Black, Edwin. (2003). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows

Carlson, Elof Axel. (2001). The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

Chesterton, G. K. (1922). Eugenics and Other Evils: An Argument Against the Scientifically Organized State, London: Cassell

Duster, Troy. (1990). Backdoor to Eugenics, New York: Routledge, reprinted 2003

Gould, Stephen Jay. (1981). The Mismeasure of Man,  New York: Norton, reprinted: London: Penguin Books, 1997

Kevles, Daniel. (1986). In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity, Berkeley: University of California Press and Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1998

Kühl, Stefan. (1994). The Nazi Connection. Eugenics, American Racism and German National Socialism, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press

Larson, Edward J. (1996). Sex, Race, and Science : Eugenics in the Deep South, Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press

Ordover, Nancy. (2003). American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Rosen, Christine. (2004). Preaching Eugenics : Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press

Traverso, Enzo. (2003). The Origins of Nazi violence New York and London: New Press

Wallace, Max. (2003). The American Axis. Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh and the Rise of the Third Reich, New York: St Martin's Press


US Documentary:

The Lynchburg Story. Eugenic Sterilization In America (1993) 8 300 mainly poor women were sterilised in Virginia between 1905 and 1972, 80 000 in the USA in total. Order

"The sterilization law declared constitutional in the U.S. in 1927 became the basis of Hitler's eugenics program."

Review: The lies of Lynchburg. How U.S. evolutionists taught the Nazis. by Carl Wieland